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Information security is becoming a critical aspect of business operations. This is especially true if we consider the rising costs associated with data breaches. The average cost of a data breach was $4.24 million (about £3.1 million), according to a study by the Ponemon Institute.

To safeguard against these risks and vulnerabilities, organizations must conduct thorough risk assessments. There are many types of risks and threats that can affect information security. But what is IT security risk, and how do we define it?

We will talk about what IT security risk means in this blog. Join us as we educate you so that you can handle your company’s security issues effectively.

What Is IT Security Risk?

Information security risk is anything that could compromise the privacy, accuracy, or accessibility of private data. It encompasses risks relating to physical records, digital assets, systems, and servers. This includes incidents where information is lost, stolen, or temporarily made unavailable.

But for good management, it is important to know how complex information security risks are. A better way to describe it is as having bad effects after putting the data’s privacy, integrity, or availability at risk.

For a full understanding of this, one must look at vulnerabilities, threats, and risk assessment together. Vulnerabilities are known flaws in software or physical weaknesses exploited by criminals during cyberattacks like phishing scams.

On the other hand, threats occur when actors exploit these vulnerabilities through actions such as

  • Hacking into a system using software flaws
  • Tricking employees with bogus emails.

In the end, information security risks arise from threats taking advantage of weaknesses. For instance, hackers may gain access to an employee’s work account. It can result in financial losses, reputational damage, and regulatory outcomes.

types of risks and threats in information security

Types Of Risks And Threats In Information Security

There are various types of risks and threats in information security. Let’s delve into some examples that can help us understand the different categories even better.

  • Human Error

Including the wrong person in an email or attaching incorrect documents can lead to a data breach. Mistakes happen, but employees must grasp information security essentials. All staff, regardless of technical expertise, should familiarize themselves with the organization’s security policies and procedures. This familiarization is vital for effective risk prevention and management.

Awareness training workshops play a vital role in educating employees about potential risks. These workshops help enforce best practices to mitigate human error-related threats effectively. Such mitigation secures valuable business assets against avoidable vulnerabilities.

  • Malicious Insiders

Insider threats are a significant concern in information security. These risks arise when individuals within an organization misuse their authorized access to critical data or systems.

Careless employees who disregard business rules can unintentionally cause insider threats. They might share sensitive information or fall victim to phishing scams. Malicious insiders, on the other hand, intentionally bypass security measures with harmful intentions, such as

  • Stealing and selling data
  • Disrupting operations

To prevent insider threats, organizations should limit access privileges based on job requirements. It’s also crucial to provide comprehensive security training for employees and contractors.

Two-factor authentication adds an extra layer of protection. Conversely, temporary accounts for freelancers mitigate long-term risks. Monitoring software for employees can also find possible security holes caused by careless or angry employees.

  • Viruses and Worms

Malicious software programs, known as viruses and worms, can wreak havoc on an organization’s systems and data. Viruses replicate by copying themselves to other files or programs, lying idle until triggered by a user. This malicious executable code can modify or delete data or be harmless. With a virus attached, the computer program does something, like delete a file from the system. It is not possible to control viruses from afar.

On the other hand, worms don’t require human interaction. They spread through automatic processes in operating systems. Worm copies itself over and over, which slows down the computer. Worms can be managed with a remote. The main thing that worms want to do is use up system resources.

To mitigate these risks, a business should follow the following steps:

  • Installing up-to-date antivirus software
  • Training users to avoid suspicious attachments or links
  • Being cautious with P2P file sharing services
  • Refraining from clicking on unfamiliar ads or downloading free software from untrusted sources
  • Botnets

Cybercriminals control a network of connected devices that are infected with malware. This network is called a “botnet.” They exploit vulnerable devices for spam emails, click fraud campaigns, and DDoS attacks.

To tackle botnets, organizations should monitor network activity for irregular behavior. Moreover, updating operating systems and software regularly with security patches is paramount.

It is very important to teach people not to do risky things, like

  • Opening emails from people they do not know
  • Downloading attachments

Utilizing anti botnet tools alongside firewalls and antivirus software is also recommended. It helps detect, prevent, and remove botnets effectively.

  • Ransomware

During a ransomware attack, hackers encrypt the victim’s computer. Afterward, they demand payment in virtual currency for its release. These attacks can be spread through various means, like

  • Malicious email attachments
  • Infected websites

To protect against ransomware, users should regularly back up their devices and update software. Avoid clicking on unknown links or opening suspicious email attachments.

Organizations must combine firewalls with web content filters. It will help to prevent the introduction of malware. Besides, access should be limited by segregating networks into different zones requiring unique credentials.

  • Exploit Kits

An important tool in a cybercriminal’s arsenal is the exploit kit. Through system vulnerabilities, these kits let non-programmers create and distribute malware. Exploit kits go by various names, such as infection kits or DIY attack kits. They are used for malicious activities, like

  • Data theft
  • Denial of service attacks
  • Building botnets

Enterprises should use antimalware software and regularly assess security against exploit kit threats. Installing anti phishing tools is also crucial. That’s because many exploit kits use phishing techniques or compromised websites to infiltrate networks.

  • Physical Theft

In addition to digital threats, the protection of physical records is equally important for organizations. Such records include files stored on-site or printed by employees, as well as devices used to store information.

Protecting company laptops when employees use them at home is very important. That’s because hybrid work arrangements have become more common. Data breaches can occur if removable devices or company phones are lost or stolen.

Addressing these risks requires implementing secure storage systems. Moreover, educating employees on the proper handling and transportation of physical records can’t be neglected. Regular inventory checks and access controls help prevent unauthorized access to sensitive information.

  • Phishing

With emails being a common part of our daily lives, cybercriminals often use them as an attack vector. They pretend to be reputable companies, like banks or insurance companies. Then they get people to click on dangerous links or download viruses. This mischievous process is known as phishing.

Phishing is also a favored method for targeting organizations. Attackers plant malware, particularly ransomware, which spreads through systems and encrypts data. The victim then faces a demand for payment in return for the decryption key.

Experts advise against paying the ransom due to no guarantee from attackers. However, many victims still take the risk. This is a big reason why ransomware attacks are still prevalent.

information security management

Risk Assessment Steps for Information Security Management

To establish a risk management process, a security risk assessment process is mandatory. You can customize the process to your needs, but you need to follow key concepts for structure and guidance.

  • Risk Identification

In this step, threats and vulnerabilities are identified. It also includes reviewing policies, procedures, and systems to protect assets and assess risks. The aim is to safeguard confidentiality, sincerity, and the availability of information.

  • Risk Analysis

During risk analysis, the probability and potential consequences of identified risks are evaluated. This evaluation includes assessing their likelihood of occurrence and the impact they could have.

  • Risk Evaluation

To assess risks effectively, the significance of those risks must be evaluated. By comparing risk levels to company specific tolerances, priorities are determined for proper response and mitigation strategies.

  • Risk Treatment

Reducing security incidents requires effective risk treatment. Implementing suitable controls, policies, and procedures to manage risks efficiently remains vital. This implementation ensures organizations successfully minimize the likelihood and harm of potential cybersecurity threats or breaches.

Types of Risk Response

When managing risks, selecting the right response is crucial. SIx main types of risk responses exist: Avoidance, Mitigation, Transfer, Sharing, Remediation, and Acceptance. Evaluation of each risk individually guarantees the determination of the most effective approach for your information systems.

  • Accept

Accepting risks means choosing not to take any action to mitigate them. This decision may be made if the cost of mitigation is higher than the potential harm. Besides, this option is also viable if the risk falls within acceptable tolerance levels. However, it’s important to consider the consequences of accepting risks. This is especially true for critical assets and sensitive information.

  • Share

Sharing the risk with a third party, like an insurance company or business partner, is another response option. This decision can help reduce the financial impact in the event of a loss. It’s important to ensure that the third party has appropriate mitigation measures. They should also adhere to your organization’s security policies.

  • Remediation

Remediation involves implementing security controls that fully or nearly fully address the underlying risk. For example, if a vulnerability is identified on a server with critical assets, applying a patch can mitigate the risk.

  • Mitigation

Mitigation reduces the likelihood or impact of a risk without completely resolving it. For instance, addressing a vulnerability on a server can involve implementing firewall rules to restrict communication with the vulnerable service. This act mitigates potential risks by allowing only specific systems to interact with critical assets on the server.

  • Transfer

Outsourcing to transfer risk is common with IT security risks. Ensure the vendor has proper mitigation measures and complies with your policies. It’s an effective strategy for risk management, saving time, effort, and resources.

  • Avoid

This is the final option. To avoid risks, change processes or procedures to eliminate them. This approach is ideal for protecting sensitive information and critical assets within the organization’s infrastructure.

Risk Management Best Practice

Three essential best practices for managing information security risks include:

  • Implement Safeguards

To protect your data and network from cyber attacks, implementing safeguards is crucial. Such safeguards can include blockades, intrusion detection systems, encryption, and access controls. Regular penetration testing helps identify vulnerabilities. It also helps to ensure that these safeguards effectively minimize cybersecurity risks.

  • Rinse And Repeat

Risk management is an ongoing process that requires consistent monitoring. When implementing controls, such as firewalls or encryption measures, it’s important to recognize that systems and circumstances can change over time.

Factors like code updates or changes in network settings may impact the effectiveness of your controls down the line. Thus, it’s vital to regularly review and update these measures to ensure they remain robust against evolving threats.

  • Develop an Incident Response Plan

Having a reliable incident response plan is crucial for addressing cybersecurity incidents and data breaches. It should outline steps to contain, identify the cause, and restore systems in case of an incident.

Additionally, a specialized plan targeting ransomware attacks can minimize damage. It can also prevent data loss effectively. Regular testing and updating of the incident response plan ensures it stays up-to-date against evolving cybersecurity risks.


Understanding IT security risks is essential for businesses in today’s digital landscape. It involves identifying and assessing potential threats, vulnerabilities, and their impact on sensitive information and systems. By implementing effective risk management strategies such as regular assessments, robust controls, and incident response plans, organizations can mitigate risks effectively.

At Crown Computers, we specialize in providing comprehensive IT solutions. Our aim is to help businesses navigate the complex world of information security risks. Our managed IT services and technology support using Microsoft SharePoint and Teams protect your computer networks. Trust us with your cybersecurity needs. We will help you to achieve peace of mind while maximizing the productivity of your business operations.